来源:Frontiers of Architectural Research 发布时间:2023/5/12 11:18:01
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FoAR | 前沿研究:在3D打印建造中探寻新的设计可塑性

论文标题:A road map to find in 3D printing a new design plasticity for construction — The state of art(在3D打印建造中探寻新的设计可塑性)

期刊:Frontiers of Architectural Research

作者:João Teixeira, Cecília Ogliari Schaefer, Bárbara Rangel, Lino Maia, Jorge Lino Alves

发表时间:Apr 2023

DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2022.05.003

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FoAR是由高等教育出版社东南大学建筑学院联合主办的全英文学术期刊

建筑学 / 城乡规划 / 风景园林

本刊已被 A&HCI / CSCD / Scopus / DOAJ 收录

Frontiers of Architectural Research(建筑学研究前沿/FoAR)于4月初在线发布了2023年第二期,共12篇文章。本期推送为其中一篇文章的摘要和大纲,内容采用中文表达,方便大家阅读。推文内容不可直接引用。

01

论 文 题 目

Manuscript Title

A road map to find in 3D printing a new design plasticity for construction – The state of art

在3D打印建造中探寻新的设计可塑性——研究前沿

02

作 者

Authors

Jo ?ao Teixeira (a)*, Cec ??lia Ogliari Schaefer (b), B ?arbara Rangel (a)(c), Lino Maia (a)(d), Jorge Lino Alves (e)

(a) CONSTRUCT, Faculty of Engineering (FEUP), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

(b) School of Arts, Communication and Hospitality, Architecture and Urbanism, University of the Itaja? ? Valley, Itaja? ?, Brazil

(c) Faculty of Architecture, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

(d) Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering, University of Madeira, Porto, Portugal

(e) INEGI/Faculty of Engineering University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

03

论 文 摘 要

Abstrac

Recent years are showing a rapid adoption of digital manufacturing techniques to the construction industry, with a focus on additive manufacturing. Although 3D printing for construction (3DPC) has notably advanced in recent years, publications on the subject are recent and date a growth in 2019, indicating that it is a promising technology as it enables greater efficiency with fair consumption of material, minimization of waste generation, encouraging the construction industrialization and enhancing and accelerating the constructive process. This new building system not only gives an optimization of the building process but provides a new approach to the building design materiality. The direct connection between design and manufacturing allows the reduction in the number of the various construction phases needed. It is opening a new and wide range of options both formal and chromatic in customization, avoiding complex formworks, reducing costs and manufacturing time. The creative process has a strict and direct link with the constructive process, straightening design with its materiality. Cement-based materials lead the way, but new alternatives are being explored to further reduce its carbon footprint. In order to leverage its sustainability and enhance the system capacity, initiatives are being pursued to allow the reduction of the use of PC. Geopolimers are taking the first steps in 3DPC. Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) materials are used to substitute natural aggregates. Even soil is being explored has a structural and aesthetic material. These research trends are opening a wider range of possibilities for architecture and design, broadening the spectrum of color, texture, and formal variations. The concern about textures and colours is not yet evident in many the structures already printed, opening the opportunity for future research. More can be done in the mixture and formal design of this building system, “discovering” other raw materials in others waste.This article aims to make a critical review of technologies, materials and methodologies to support the development of new sustainable materials to be used as a plastic element in the printed structure. A roadmap of 3D printing for construction is presented, and an approach on mix design, properties in the fresh and hardened state, highlighting the possibilities for obtaining alternative materials are pointed. With this review possible directions are presented to find solutions to enhance the sustainability of this system discovering “new” materiality for architecture and design.

近年来,数字化制造技术在建筑行业内得到了迅猛的发展和广泛的采用,主要集中于增材制造(additive manufacturing)。虽然3D打印建筑(3DPC)近年来取得了显著的进步,然而与此技术相关的出版物于2019年才慢慢增多起来。由此可见,3D打印建筑因为可以提升材料的合理消耗、最大限度地减少废料的产生、鼓励建筑工业化、增强和减速建设过程,而被认为是一项具备前途的技术。这类新兴的建造体系不仅优化了建设过程,而且为建筑设计的材料性提供了一种新的方法。设计与建造之间的直接联系可以缩减施工阶段。其色彩和形式的定制上提供了一种新的更加广泛的选择,避免使用复杂的模具,从而减少建造成本和建造时间。创作过程与建构过程有着严格而直接的联系,通过材料来矫正设计。水泥基材料处于领先地位,然而人们正探索新的替代材料,以进一步减少碳足迹。为了提高建造系统的可持续性和体量,目前正采取措施来减少打印建筑的使用。地聚合物(Geopolimers)率先迈出了3D打印建筑的第一步。建筑固废(CDW)可以被用来代替天然的骨料。甚至是土壤也被探索可成为具备结构美学的建筑材料。这些研究趋势为建筑和设计开辟了更加广泛的可能性——拓宽了材料色彩、材质和形式变化的范畴。在很多已打印建成的结构中对材料材质和颜色的关注并不显著,这为未来的研究提供了机会。在此建造体系中的混合与正式设计中还有很多研究可以做,可以在其他废料中“发现”更多其他的原材料。本文旨在对技术、材料和方法进行批判性的回顾,以支持在3D打印结构中那些新的可持续材料能够更好地发展成为一种可塑性的建筑元素。本文提出了3D打印用于建造的路线图,并指出了混合设计方法,以及在材料新鲜和固化的不同状态下的材料性能,强调了获取代替材料的可能性。通过这一回顾,本文提出了可能的方向,并寻求解决方案,从而增强了建造体系的可持续性,发现建筑与设计中“新的”材料性。

04

关 键 词

Keywords

3D printing / 3D打印

Architecture / 建筑

Construction / 建造

Materials development / 材料开发

Textures / 材质

05

章 节 标 题

Sections Title

1. Introduction / 引言

2. Research methodology / 研究方法

3. 3DPC materiality in architecture and design / 建筑与设计中3D打印的材料性

4. 3DP for construction world roadmap / 3D打印在建造中的路线图

5. Fresh properties for a 3D printable material / 3D打印软材料的性能

6. Characterization in the hardened state / 打印材料在硬化状态下的描述

6.1. Mechanical performance / 机械性能

6.2. Durability / 持久性

6.3. Textures and colours / 材质与颜色

7. Trends in the developing of more sustainable mortars for 3DP: 3D打印中生态砂浆发展趋势

7.1. Options to improve sustainability in PC-based materials / 提升基于打印建筑材料可持续性的选择

7.1.1. Supplementary cementitious materials in 3D printing / 3D打印中对水泥基材料的补充

7.1.2. Alternative aggregates / 替代骨料

7.1.3. Chemical admixtures / 化学添加剂

7.2. Geopolymeric materials / 地聚物材料

7.3. Soil and clay-based materials / 土壤与粘土基材料

7.4. Gypsum-based materials / 石膏基材料

7.5. 3D metal printing / 3D金属打印

8. Conclusion / 结论

06

主 要 插 图

Illustrations

▲ 图一:采用不同技术和材料所打印的结构。(a)由Mario Cucinella建筑事务所设计,由WASP采用泥土彩印的“Tecla”。© WASP, 2021b。(b/c)由TAM打印的结构,利用3D打印探索新材质与几何体。 © Twente Additive Manufacturing B.V., 2021。(d)Bruil在鹿特丹的材料体验博览会上所展示的对于渐变色彩砂浆的探索。© Bruil, 2021; Bruil and MaterialDistrict, 2016

▲ 图二:建造中所使用的3D打印工艺类型:(a)D-shape 技术,BJ方法 © D-Shape,2010。(b)ME方法,TAM的机械臂打印机 © Twente Additive Manufacturing B.V., 2021。(c)ME方法,WASP的Crane 打印机。

▲ 图三:两种不同类型的3D打印过程产出的不同材质效果。(a)通过D-Shape过程打印出的具有复杂几何结构且无分层纹理的雕塑 © D-Shape,2010。

▲ 图四: Houben & Van Mierlo建筑事务所为Milestone项目设计的3D打印房屋(2018年)。© 本文作者

▲ 图五: 通过材料挤压进行3D打印所需的设备(2018年)。© 本文作者

▲ 图六:3D打印建筑中材料所展现的色彩。© Bruil and MaterialDistrict, 2016; IAAC, 2021; O ?zalp and Yilmaz, 2020; Sika, 2018; WASP, 2021b

▲ 图七:由Neto等人开发的技术打印的3D石膏基材料样品。© Neto et al., 2017

07

作 者 介 绍

Authors Information

Jo ?ao Teixeira

PhD in Spatial Planning

Research Centre José Joaquín de Mora (Cardenas Foundation)

PhD in Spatial Planning at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto. The PhD focus on the role of bike sharing systems in increasing the sustainability and resilience of transport systems during disruptive public health emergencies.

Cec ??lia Ogliari Schaefer

Post-Doctorate

School of Arts, Communication and Hospitality

Architecture and Urbanism, University of the Itaja? ? Valley, Brazil

Graduated in Civil Engineering from the Regional Community University of Chapecó (2004) and Master and PhD in Civil Engineering from the Federal University of Santa Catarina. She interned as a doctoral researcher at the Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon in 2009. Post-doctorate in Civil Construction at FEUP, Portugal. Civil Engineer of the Court of Justice of the State of Santa Catarina. Professor of the Architecture and Urbanism Course at the University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI). Post-graduation in progress in BIM Manager by PUC Minas.

B ?arbara Rangel

Professor (Associate)

University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Architect by University of Porto in 1996. The professional carrier started in 1993 working with Alcino Soutinho. In 1995 did an internship at Rafael Moneo Studio. After her diploma in 1996, worked for 5 years in Álvaro Siza’s Office. In 2005 founded with Ana Vale ABprojectos.

Lino Manuel Serra Maia

Assistant Researcher

CONSTRUCT, Faculty of Engineering (FEUP), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Member of the R&D unit CONSTRUCT- Institute of R&D in Structures and Construction.Degree in Civil Engineering from FEUP (2005); PhD in Civil Engineering from FEUP (2011). Construction materials, sustainability and circular economy in construction; new building materials; efficient and smart construction; concrete technology; self-compacting concrete; high performance concrete; geopolymer concrete; eco-concrete; recycled concrete; construction and demolition waste; incorporation of waste and by-products from other industries in construction; concrete structures; durability and pathologies in buildings; 3D printing in construction; artificial intelligence in construction; automation and digitalization of construction.

Jorge Lino Alves

Professor (Associate)

INEGI/Faculty of Engineering University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Jorge Lino Alves currently works at the Mechanical Engineering, INSTITUTO DE CIÊNCIA EM ENGENHARIA MECÂNICA E EM ENGENHARIA INDUSTRIAL. Jorge does research in Additive Manufacturing and Industrial Design. Their most recent publication is Reinforcement of a biopolymer matrix by lignocellulosic agro-waste.

08

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