MDPI Foods |用角豆粉替代小麦粉和可可粉对蛋糕的感官、质地和香气的影响
论文标题：Cake Perception, Texture and Aroma Profile as Affected by Wheat Flour and Cocoa Replacement with Carob Flour
作者：Maria Papageorgiou,Adamantini Paraskevopoulou,Foteini Pantazi and Adriana Skendi
发表时间：2 November 2020
摘要：角豆粉作为一种食品配料被广泛应用于食品烘焙，它在烘烤过程中常表现出巧克力或可可的味道和色泽。本研究的主要目的有两方面：首先研究烤角豆面粉 (面粉基础为0-70％) 的添加量对常规可可蛋糕配方的品质和感官特性的影响，其次是利用HS-SPME技术结合GC/MS对得到的挥发性成分进行研究，同时与对照的可可蛋糕进行对比。研究结果表明，含有30%、50%角豆粉的蛋糕质地和感官属性都比较容易接受，与可可具有相似的气味主要是因为具有醛类、内酯类、呋喃/吡喃衍生物和吡咯衍生物等气味活性化合物。近期，来自希腊的Maria Papageorgiou和Adamantini Paraskevopoulou及其研究团队，研究了用角豆粉替代小麦粉和可可粉对蛋糕的感官、质地和香气的影响，并将其结果发表在Foods上。
角豆粉的主要特点是糖含量较高，最高可达到50％以上 (主要是蔗糖)，膳食纤维含量在11％左右。角豆粉目前已被运用于各种功能性食品的生产，例如烘焙食品、糖果、面食和饮料。此外，由于它具有巧克力/可可的风味和色泽，再加上其不含咖啡因和可可碱 (比可可便宜)，同时增加了纤维的摄入，减少了脂肪含量，并具有显著的自由基清除活性，这使其成为了食品工业中重要的可可替代品和增量剂 [1-4]。
根据McLeod和Forcen  的描述，通过同时进行水蒸气蒸馏-溶剂萃取技术获得的角豆粉提取物的特征是存在高含量的脂肪酸，然后是酮、醛、苯衍生物、醇、酯、萜烯、呋喃衍生物和其他化合物，而它们的香气被形容为“甜、黄油味、焦糖味、酯、略带油性/脂肪，并带有令人不愉快的硫和腐臭/香气”。结果表明，焙烧过程对角豆粉的香气分布有显著影响，其香气分布随焙烧程度的不同而不同 。根据GC-MS实验的数据和感官观察，可可类气味主要归因于糖的热降解，而不是美拉德反应途径。
Fadel等  比较了真正的可可粉挥发性风味成分与一种由磨碎的烤角豆荚和菊苣根 (2：1 w / w) 混合物组成的低成本可可粉的挥发性风味成分，结果显示，在真正的可可中发现的大多数挥发性化合物也在可可替代品样品中得到了表征。因此，在用作可可替代品之前，应将角豆果肉烘烤并研磨成粉末 。
最近的一项研究报告称，在混合粉饮料中成功地用角豆粉替代了10%的可可粉，另一种是在豆饼中添加了5%的角豆粉 [9-10] 。虽然最近的文献报道了在蛋糕配方中使用角豆荚 [11-13]，但并没有涉及在香气方面替代可可，而是高层次的角豆荚添加对蛋糕质量、化学成分和感官特性的影响。
• 以添加了30%角豆粉的蛋糕与没有添加角豆粉的蛋糕 (对照) 为样品，进行挥发性化合物分析。
图为添加不同剂量的角豆粉对蛋糕瓤 (A) 及蛋糕皮 (B) 颜色的影响
对小组成员测试的结果进行分析后发现，不同角豆粉添加量仅在颜色、甜度及柔软度上存在差异。颜色方面，含30％和50％角豆粉的蛋糕的颜色类似于含20％可可粉的蛋糕 (对照) 颜色；随着角豆粉的含量增加，蛋糕甜度逐渐增加。蛋糕的柔软度随着角豆粉含量的增加降低。
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Carob flour has been used in the production of a wide range of functional food formulations such as bakery goods either as a natural sweetener or food ingredient that, when roasted, exerts a chocolate/cocoa-reminiscent flavor and color. The aim of the present study was twofold; firstly to study the effect of an increasing incorporation of roasted carob flour (0–70% flour basis) on the quality and sensory attributes of a conventional cocoa cake recipe and secondly to investigate the obtained volatile fraction responsible for the aroma by means of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) while comparing it with the control, cocoa-containing cake recipe. Thirty and fifty percent carob flour incorporation rendered cakes with acceptable texture and sensory attributes, comparable to the control cake recipe containing 20% cocoa. Similarity to cocoa aroma was attributed to a great number of odor active compounds mainly belonging to aldehydes, lactones, furan/pyran derivatives, and pyrrole derivatives.
Carob flour, it is characterized by a high content of sugars (>50%, mainly sucrose), dietary fibers (~11%), minerals (Mg, Fe, P, Zn, Ca, K, Na) as well as low protein (3–4%) and lipids (0.2–0.8%) levels and significant amounts of phenolic compounds (e.g., gallic acid, hydrolysable and condensed tannins) and vitamins (e.g., E, D, C, B6, folic acid). Carob flour has been used in the production of a wide range of functional food formulations such as bakery goods, sweets, pasta and beverages, either as a natural sweetener or food ingredient.
Our intent was not only to study the effect that the increasing incorporation of roasted carob flour (0–70%) has on the quality and sensory attributes of a conventional cocoa cake recipe, but also to investigate the obtained volatile fraction responsible of the aroma product in the best performed carob cake while comparing it with that of the control cocoa-containing cake recipe. A detailed evaluation of the developed aroma volatile fraction of pound cake with the added carob flour or cocoa was performed by means of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.
Cake Preparation and Measurements
• The following parameters were measured: volume, cake yield, crust and crumb color, texture of the crumb, hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness
• The sensory evaluation of the cakes was performed 24 h after baking by 20 trained panelists, aged 30–62 years (11 men and nine women) at the sensory laboratory of the department of the Food Science and Technology of the International Hellenic University. The cakes were evaluated for their color, alveolar structure (porosity), aroma, sweetness, softness, crumbliness, and overall acceptability.
Volatile Compounds Analysis
Only the incorporation level of 50% flour basis rendered cakes with a significantly (p < 0.05) harder crumb than the control cocoa cake. At addition levels of 10 and 30% carob flour, the hardness of the crumb was significantly reduced, with no significant changes in the springiness values when compared to the control cake. By increasing the carob level above 30% flour basis, a significant decrease of the springiness and cohesiveness was noticed. No changes were observed in the adhesiveness values among all the tested samples.
They evaluated the color of cakes with 30 and 50% carob flour as similar to the cake with 20% cocoa (control). Regarding sweetness, a progressive increase was observed in the perceived sweetness of the cakes with increasing levels of carob flours. However, only the cake with 70% carob flour was significantly different from the control.
A total of 113 headspace volatile compounds isolated by SPME were identified in the studied cakes, including 18 aldehydes, 17 alcohols, 12 ketones, 20 nitrogen-containing compounds (16 pyrazine and 3 pyrrole derivatives), 16 carbonic acids, 8 furan derivatives, 3 pyran derivatives, 10 lactones, 6 esters, 2 sulphur compounds and 2 terpene compounds
Thirty and fifty percent carob flour incorporation rendered cakes with acceptable texture and sensory attributes, comparable to the control cake recipe containing 20% cocoa. Batter density and cake yield were only affected at a 70% incorporation level. Cake specific volume was negatively affected by the incorporation of the high content of dietary fibers in the raw material added. PCA analysis of the dataset explained the 74.1% of the total variation, revealing a high association between some sensory parameters. A close positive relationship was observed between the color and porosity, whereas the softness was inversely associated with those parameters. On the other hand, aroma and sweetness have a high relationship between them.
The cake with 30% carob flour gained the highest score for overall acceptability. A total of 113 headspace volatile compounds isolated by SPME were identified in the studied cakes. As revealed by GS-MS analysis, it could be concluded that the cocoa-reminiscent aroma of carob flour-containing cake could mainly be attributed to the similarities observed with the aroma profile of cocoa cake as regards the presence of aldehydes, lactones, furan/pyran derivatives, and pyrrole derivatives.