作者:冯维维 来源:科学网微信公众号 发布时间:2024/3/17 20:18:15
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《科学》(20240315出版)一周论文导读

 

编译|冯维维

Science, 15 MAR 2024, VOLUME 383 ISSUE 6688

《科学》2024年3月15日,第383卷,6688期

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化学Chemistry

Reinforcing self-assembly of hole transport molecules for stable inverted perovskite solar cells

钙钛矿太阳能电池中空穴输运分子的增强自组装

▲ 作者:HONGCAI TANG, ZHICHAO SHEN, YANGZI SHEN, GE YAN, YANBO, QIFENG HAN, AND LIYUAN HAN

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adj9602

▲ 摘要:

研究者使用原子层沉积来稳定钙钛矿太阳能电池(PSCs)中用作空穴传输层的自组装单层(SAM)。他们发现,在通过原子层沉积沉积额外的氧化铟后,SAMs在透明氧化铟锡电极上的锚定强度更强。

这些薄膜具有高覆盖率的强化学吸附羟基,通过三甲氧基硅烷基团结合SAM。在85℃的最大功率点跟踪下工作1200小时后,倒置PSCs保持了98%的功率转换效率。

▲ Abstract:

Atomic-layer deposition was used by Tang et al. to stabilize self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) used as the hole-transporter layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). They found that SAMs were anchored more strongly to the transparent indium tin oxide electrode after additional indium oxide was deposited by atomic-layer deposition. These films had a high coverage of strongly chemisorbed hydroxyl groups that bound the SAM through trimethoxysilane groups. Inverted PSCs maintained 98% of their power-conversion efficiency after operating at maximum power point tracking at 85°C for 1200 hours.

Electron injection and defect passivation for high-efficiency mesoporous perovskite solar cells

高效介孔钙钛矿太阳能电池的电子注入与缺陷钝化

▲ 作者:JIALE LIU, XIAYAN CHEN, KAIZHONG CHEN, WENMING TIAN, YUSONG SHENG, BIN SHE, YOUYU JIANG, DEYI ZHANG, YANG LIU, etc.

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adk9089

▲ 摘要:

通过氧化钛界面缺陷钝化改进电子注入,提高了介孔钙钛矿太阳能电池的效率。在这些装置中,由碳、二氧化钛和填充钙钛矿的二氧化锆组成的层状介孔支架具有条带排列,可以在没有空穴传输层的情况下分离电荷。

研究者用磷酸铵钝化二氧化钛上的缺陷,改善电子注入。由此产生的电荷重组的减少将功率转换效率提高到22%左右。在55℃的最大功率点跟踪750小时后,设备保持了97%的初始效率。

▲ Abstract:

Improved electron injection through passivation of defects at the titanium oxide interface has boosted the efficiency of mesoporous perovskite solar cells. In these devices, a layered mesoporous scaffold of carbon, titanium dioxide, and zirconium dioxide filled with perovskite has a band alignment that separates charges without a hole-transporter layer. Liu et al. passivated defects on titanium dioxide with ammonium phosphate to improve electron injection. The resulting decrease in charge recombination boosted the power-conversion efficiency to about 22%. Devices maintained 97% of their initial efficiency after 750 hours of maximum power point tracking at 55°C.

A commercially viable solution process to control long-chain branching in polyethylene

商业上可行的控制聚乙烯长链分支的溶液工艺

▲ 作者:ROBERT D. FROESE, DANIEL J. ARRIOLA, JAAP DEN DOELDER, JIANBO HOU, TERESITA KASHYAP, KERAN LU, LUCA MARTINETTI, AND BRYAN D. STUBBERT

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adn3067

▲ 摘要:

低密度聚乙烯(LDPE)广泛应用于塑料薄膜和其他柔韧制品,其性质来自于分支分子结构,而非直分子结构,这需要一种能量密集的高压合成技术。研究者报告了一种在温和的溶液条件下实现长链分支的独特方法。

他们的催化剂可以同时组装两条链,通过使用少量的二烯和乙烯的混合物来连接,形成一个阶梯状的几何结构。所得塑料具有与LDPE相当的性能。

▲ Abstract:

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is widely applied in plastic films and other pliable products. It derives its properties from a branched rather than straight molecular structure, which requires an energy-intensive, high-pressure synthesis technique. Froese et al. report a distinct method to achieve long-chain branching under milder, solution-phase conditions. Their catalyst can assemble two chains at once, linked through the use of a small amount of diene mixed in with the ethylene, to create a ladder-like geometry. The resulting plastic has properties comparable to LDPE.

Two-dimensional materials by large-scale computations and chemical exfoliation of layered solids

二维材料的大规模计算和层状固体的化学剥落

▲ 作者:JONAS BJ?RK, JIE ZHOU, PER O. ?. PERSSON, AND JOHANNA ROSEN

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adj6556

▲ 摘要:

MXenes是一类由过渡金属碳化物、氮化物或碳氮化物组成的层状无机化合物。它们通常是通过在酸性条件下对三维(3D)母材进行选择性蚀刻而获得的。一个悬而未决的问题是,是否有其他分层材料可以利用现有的化学工艺获得。

研究者描述了一种使用计算进行高通量筛选的方法,以确定哪些3D材料可能进行成功的化学剥离。他们确定了119个潜在的候选材料,并通过实验从母体YRu2Si2化合物中合成了Ru2SixOy纳米片,这是一种与标准MXenes家族完全不同的材料。

▲ Abstract:

MXenes are a family of layered inorganic compounds made of transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides. They are most often obtained through the selective etching of three-dimensional (3D) parent materials under acidic conditions. One open question is whether there are other layered materials that might be obtained using existing chemical processes. Bj?rk et al. describe a method for high-throughput screening using computation to determine which 3D materials might undergo successful chemical exfoliation. The authors identified 119 possible candidates, from which they experimentally synthesized Ru2SixOy nanosheets from a parent YRu2Si2 compound, a material quite different from the standard families of MXenes

Grid-plainification enables medium-temperature PbSe thermoelectrics to cool better than Bi2Te3

电网平化可使中温硒化铅热电材料比碲化铋更好地冷却

▲ 作者:YONGXIN QIN, BINGCHAO QIN, TAO HONG, XIAO ZHANG, DONGYANG WANG, DONGRUI LIU, ZI-YUAN WANG, LIZHONG SU, SINING WANG, AND LI-DONG ZHAO

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adk9589

▲ 摘要:

热电冷却是一种有吸引力的固态方法,但目前它依赖于资源有限的碲基材料。研究者发现了一种相对简单的硒化铅基材料,具有吸引人的冷却潜力。

他们发现,在混合物中加入额外的铅有助于填补空缺,从而提高热电效率。通过将这种材料与硒化锡配对,研究者构建了一个具有相对吸引人的性能的冷却装置,并展示了无碲冷却的潜力。

▲ Abstract:

Thermoelectric cooling is an attractive solid-state method, but it currently relies on resource-limited telluride-based materials. Qin et al. discovered a relatively simple lead selenide–based material that has attractive cooling potential. They found compositions in which extra lead added to the system helped to fill in vacancies, thus improving the thermoelectric efficiency. By pairing this material with tin selenide, the authors built a cooling device that has relatively attractive performance and demonstrates the potential for tellurium-free cooling.

生态学Ecology

Diversity begets stability: Sublinear growth and competitive coexistence across ecosystems

多样性带来稳定性:跨生态系统的亚线性增长和竞争性共存

▲ 作者:IAN A. HATTON, ONOFRIO MAZZARISI, ADA ALTIERI, AND MATTEO SMERLAK

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adg8488

▲ 摘要:

随着时间的推移,地球上一些最具生物多样性的生态系统也是最稳定的,然而生态学理论预测,当更多的物种共存时,群落会变得不那么稳定。最常用的物种共存模型来自Lotka-Volterra模型,该模型假设种群遵循逻辑增长模式,并且需要自我调节以允许多个物种稳定共存。

研究者发现,一种具有亚线性人口增长的替代模型在人口水平上提供了与广义Lotka-Volterra模型几乎相同的预测,但对社区的预测却截然不同。在亚线性模型下,多样性促进稳定性。该模型与已发表的种群时间序列和宏观生态尺度关系一致。

▲ Abstract:

Some of Earth’s most biodiverse ecosystems are also its most stable over time, yet ecological theory predicts that communities become less stable when more species co-occur. The most commonly used models of species coexistence are derived from the Lotka-Volterra model, which assumes that populations follow logistic growth patterns and that self-regulation is required to allow multiple species to stably coexist. Hatton et al. show that an alternative model with sublinear population growth provides nearly identical predictions to generalized Lotka-Volterra models at the population level but very different predictions for communities. Under the sublinear model, diversity promotes stability. This model is consistent with published population time series and macroecological scaling relationships.

 
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