来源:Microbiome 发布时间:2019/5/28 19:40:23
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中国海洋大学研究人员探进马里亚纳海沟 | Microbiome

论文标题:Proliferation of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes at the bottom of the Mariana Trench

期刊:Microbiome

作者:Jiwen Liu, Yanfen Zheng, Heyu Lin, Xuchen Wang, Meng Li, Yang Liu, Meng Yu, Meixun Zhao, Nikolai Pedentchouk, David J. Lea-Smith, Jonathan D. Todd, Clayton R. Magill, Wei-Jia Zhang, Shun Zhou, Delei Song, Haohui Zhong, Yu Xin, Min Yu, Jiwei Tian and Xiao-Hua Zhang

发表时间:2019/04/12

数字识别码:10.1186/s40168-019-0652-3

原文链接:http://t.cn/E9mUJ4N

微信链接:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/RptwC6vR18lSXayTAaqyLg

在一项发表在知名微生物学开放获取期刊Microbiome 的研究中,来自中国海洋大学的研究人员在已知地球海洋的最深处 —— 马里亚纳海沟(深度超过10,000米)中,对其微生物群落的构成进行了深入研究。他们发现,深渊水区(海水深度超过6,000米)含有的降解烃类的海洋螺旋菌比例高于地球上任何其他地方。

优势微生物群在海水不同深度的组成变化。

中国海洋大学的这些研究人员对马里亚纳海沟不同深度(4000米,9600米,10,400米和10,500米)的微生物进行了广泛的分析,并对其基因进行了分析。他们研究发现,在不同的水深层面,细菌占所有微生物总数的绝大部分。在底部水域中最丰富的细菌是Oleibacter,它是一个细菌属,包含能够降解烃类化合物的多种细菌。这是发现的第一个Oleibacter作为含量最丰富的细菌属所存在的环境。

烃类降解途径存在于属于Oceanospirillales的五个高质量宏基因组装配基因组(MAG)中。

这篇研究发表以后,烃类降解菌在世界上已知最深海域的存在数目骤增,并且探测深度更是从之前的9898米突破到了10916米,这种微生物群的迁徙与参与烷烃降解的基因比率较高有关。其中一部分基因在深水地平线石油泄漏后的微生物种群中也有很高的比例,表明在这两种不同的环境中,类似的分子机制是微生物对烃类化合物降解的共同基础。

这篇论文的结果揭示了这种极端环境中存在着潜在的生物过程。研究者认为烃类化合物可能是马里亚纳海沟等地区碳或潜在能源的重要来源,然而,它们的潜能仍待发掘。

摘要:

Background

The Mariana Trench is the deepest known site in the Earth’s oceans, reaching a depth of ~ 11,000 m at the Challenger Deep. Recent studies reveal that hadal waters harbor distinctive microbial planktonic communities. However, the genetic potential of microbial communities within the hadal zone is poorly understood.

Results

Here, implementing both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, we perform extensive analysis of microbial populations and their genetic potential at different depths in the Mariana Trench. Unexpectedly, we observed an abrupt increase in the abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at depths > 10,400 m in the Challenger Deep. Indeed, the proportion of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at > 10,400 m is the highest observed in any natural environment on Earth. These bacteria were mainly Oleibacter, Thalassolituus, and Alcanivorax genera, all of which include species known to consume aliphatic hydrocarbons. This community shift towards hydrocarbon degraders was accompanied by increased abundance and transcription of genes involved in alkane degradation. Correspondingly, three Alcanivorax species that were isolated from 10,400 m water supplemented with hexadecane were able to efficiently degrade n-alkanes under conditions simulating the deep sea, as did a referenceOleibacter strain cultured at atmospheric pressure. Abundant n-alkanes were observed in sinking particles at 2000, 4000, and 6000 m (averaged 23.5 μg/gdw) and hadal surface sediments at depths of 10,908, 10,909, and 10,911 m (averaged 2.3 μg/gdw). The δ2H values of n-C16/18 alkanes that dominated surface sediments at near 11,000-m depths ranged from − 79 to − 93‰, suggesting that these sedimentary alkanes may have been derived from an unknown heterotrophic source.

Conclusions

These results reveal that hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms are present in great abundance in the deepest seawater on Earth and shed a new light on potential biological processes in this extreme environment.

阅读论文全文请访问:

http://t.cn/E9mUJ4N

期刊介绍:

The central purpose of Microbiome (https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/,9.133 - 2-year Impact Factor,10.903 - 5-year Impact Factor) is to unite investigators conducting microbiome research in environmental, agricultural, and biomedical arenas.

Topics broadly addressing the study of microbial communities, such as, microbial surveys, bioinformatics, meta-omics approaches and community/host interaction modeling will be considered for publication. Through this collection of literature Microbiome hopes to integrate researchers with common scientific objectives across a broad cross-section of sub-disciplines within microbial ecology.

(来源:科学网)

 

 
 
 
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