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《科学》(20240517出版)一周论文导读

 

Science, Volume 384, Issue 6697, 17 May 2024

《科学》,第384卷,6697期,2024年5月17日

化学Chemistry

Delocalized, asynchronous, closed-loop discovery of organic laser emitters

非定域、非同步、闭环有机激光发射器的发现

▲ 作者:FELIX STRIETH-KALTHOFF, HAN HAO, VANDANA RATHORE, JOSHUA DERASP, THéOPHILE GAUDIN, NICHOLAS H. ANGELLO, MARTIN SEIFRID, EKATERINA TRUSHINA, MASON GUY, AND ALáN ASPURU-GUZIK

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adk9227

▲ 摘要:

最近在实验自动化和人工智能(AI)集成方面的进展为“自动驾驶实验室”奠定了基础,但它们仍然局限于简单的概念验证实验。

研究者引入了异步基于云的离域闭环(ACDC)发现的概念,以在单个发现活动中驱动多个地理分布的平台,其中每个单元作为独立的异步工作者运行,执行由中央AI实体计划的实验。

ACDC概念已经成功地应用于寻找具有最先进激光性能的有机固体激光增益材料,这是一个具有挑战性的科学问题,进展缓慢,从而展示了这种闭环运动的力量。

▲ Abstract:

Recent advances in experimental automation and integration with artificial intelligence (AI) have laid the foundation for so-called “self-driving labs,” but they remained limited to simple proof-of-concept experiments. Strieth-Kalthoff et al. introduced the concept of asynchronous cloud-based delocalized closed-loop (ACDC) discovery to drive multiple geographically distributed platforms in a single discovery campaign in which each unit operates as an independent, asynchronous worker executing experiments planned by a central AI entity. The ACDC concept has been successfully applied in the search for organic solid-state laser gain materials with state-of-the-art lasing performance, a challenging scientific problem with slow progress, thereby demonstrating the power of this closed-loop campaign.

Bandgap-universal passivation enables stable perovskite solar cells with low photovoltage loss

带隙通用钝化使稳定的钙钛矿太阳能电池具有低光电压损失

▲ 作者:YEN-HUNG LIN, VIKRAM, FENGNING YANG, XUE-LI CAO, AKASH DASGUPTA, ROBERT D. J. OLIVER, ALEKSANDER M. ULATOWSKI, MELISSA M. MCCARTHY, XINYI SHEN, AND HENRY J. SNAITH

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.ado2302

▲ 摘要:

金属卤化物钙钛矿太阳能电池的效率和寿命通常由非辐射缺陷介导的电荷重组决定。在这项工作中,我们展示了一种基于蒸汽的氨基硅烷钝化方法,可以将带隙在1.6到1.8电子伏之间的钙钛矿太阳能电池的光电压缺陷降低到约100毫伏(>热力学极限的90%),这对于串联应用至关重要。

伯胺、仲胺或叔胺硅烷单独对钙钛矿结晶度和电荷输运产生负面或几乎没有影响,但结合伯胺和仲胺的氨基硅烷的光致发光量子产率可提高60倍,并保持远距离传导。

氨基硅烷处理的器件在85℃的全光谱阳光和开路条件下,在相对湿度为50%至60%的环境空气中,保持95%的功率转换效率超过1500小时。

▲ Abstract:

The efficiency and longevity of metal-halide perovskite solar cells are typically dictated by nonradiative defect-mediated charge recombination. In this work, we demonstrate a vapor-based amino-silane passivation that reduces photovoltage deficits to around 100 millivolts (>90% of the thermodynamic limit) in perovskite solar cells of bandgaps between 1.6 and 1.8 electron volts, which is crucial for tandem applications. A primary-, secondary-, or tertiary-amino–silane alone negatively or barely affected perovskite crystallinity and charge transport, but amino-silanes that incorporate primary and secondary amines yield up to a 60-fold increase in photoluminescence quantum yield and preserve long-range conduction. Amino-silane–treated devices retained 95% power conversion efficiency for more than 1500 hours under full-spectrum sunlight at 85°C and open-circuit conditions in ambient air with a relative humidity of 50 to 60%.

物理学Physics

Global band convergence design for high-performance thermoelectric power generation in Zintls

Zintls高性能热电发电的全球波段收敛设计

作者:XIN SHI, SHAOWEI SONG, GUANHUI GAO, AND ZHIFENG REN

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adn7265

▲ 摘要:

Zintl材料由于其广泛的成分和可调的性质,在热电应用中具有吸引力。作者设计了一种方法,可以快速找到四种母体化合物中哪些材料具有改善热电性能的电子能带结构。

通过对几种成分的鉴定,表明其中的最佳成分具有良好的长期和高温稳定性。这种化合物可以与另一种锌钛材料配对,制成在中等温度下具有吸引力的热电性能的装置。

▲ Abstract:

Zintl materials can be attractive for thermoelectric applications because of their wide range of compositions and tunable properties. Shi et al. devised a method to quickly find which materials from four parent compounds have electronic band structures that improve thermoelectric performance. After identifying several compositions, the authors showed that the best of these has good long-term and high temperature stability. This compound can be paired with another zintl material to make a device that has attractive thermoelectric performance at midrange temperatures.

Diamond-lattice photonic crystals assembled from DNA origami

由DNA折纸组装的钻石晶格光子晶体

▲ 作者:GREGOR POSNJAK, XIN YIN, PAUL BUTLER, OLIVER BIENEK, MIHIR DASS, SEUNGWOO LEE, IAN D. SHARP, AND TIM LIEDL

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adl2733

▲ 摘要:

胶体自组装允许在微米和亚微米尺度上合理设计结构。一种可以产生完整的三维光子带隙的结构是金刚石立方晶格,它仍然很难在与可见光或紫外光波长相当的长度尺度上实现。研究者展示了由DNA折纸自组装的三维光子晶体,作为精确可编程的斑块胶体。

这一基于DNA的纳米级四足动物结晶成一个周期为170纳米的棒状连接的金刚石立方晶格。这种结构可以作为高折射率材料(如二氧化钛)原子层沉积的支架,在近紫外中产生可调谐的光子带隙。

▲ Abstract:

Colloidal self-assembly allows rational design of structures on the micrometer and submicrometer scale. One architecture that can generate complete three-dimensional photonic bandgaps is the diamond cubic lattice, which has remained difficult to realize at length scales comparable with the wavelength of visible or ultraviolet light. In this work, we demonstrate three-dimensional photonic crystals self-assembled from DNA origami that act as precisely programmable patchy colloids. Our DNA-based nanoscale tetrapods crystallize into a rod-connected diamond cubic lattice with a periodicity of 170 nanometers. This structure serves as a scaffold for atomic-layer deposition of high–refractive index materials such as titanium dioxide, yielding a tunable photonic bandgap in the near-ultraviolet.

行为学Ethology

Tool use increases mechanical foraging success and tooth health in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

工具的使用增加了南方海獭的机械觅食成功率和牙齿健康

▲ 作者:CHRIS J. LAW , M. TIM TINKER, JESSICA A. FUJII, TERI NICHOLSON, MICHELLE STAEDLER, JOSEPH A. TOMOLEONI, COLLEEN YOUNG AND RITA S. MEHTA

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adj6608

▲ 摘要:

虽然工具的使用可以提高资源利用率,但其适应度效益难以衡量。通过对196只带有无线电标记的南方海獭的纵向数据进行研究,研究者发现使用工具的个体,特别是雌性,能够获得更大或更硬壳的猎物。

这些机械优势转化为减少食品加工过程中牙齿的损伤。作者还发现,工具的使用减少了获取不同猎物、牙齿状况和能量摄入之间的权衡,所有这些都取决于环境中猎物的相对可用性。

工具的使用使个体能够通过处理其他猎物来维持能量需求,而这些猎物通常仅靠撕咬是无法获得的,这表明这种行为是一些水獭在首选猎物枯竭的环境中生存的必要条件。

▲ Abstract:

Although tool use may enhance resource utilization, its fitness benefits are difficult to measure. By examining longitudinal data from 196 radio-tagged southern sea otters, we found that tool-using individuals, particularly females, gained access to larger and/or harder-shelled prey. These mechanical advantages translated to reduced tooth damage during food processing. We also found that tool use diminishes trade-offs between access to different prey, tooth condition, and energy intake, all of which are dependent on the relative prey availability in the environment. Tool use allowed individuals to maintain energetic requirements through the processing of alternative prey that are typically inaccessible with biting alone, suggesting that this behavior is a necessity for the survival of some otters in environments where preferred prey are depleted.

How power shapes behavior: Evidence from physicians

权力如何塑造行为:来自医生的证据

▲ 作者:STEPHEN D. SCHWAB AND MANASVINI SINGH

▲ 链接:

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adl3835

▲ 摘要:

权力——对宝贵资源的不对称控制——影响着大多数人类互动。尽管用真实世界的数据来研究权力具有挑战性,但一个独特的数据集使我们能够在医患关系的关键背景下进行研究。在美国军事急诊科使用150万准随机分配,研究者检查了医生和病人之间的权力差异如何影响医生的行为。

研究结果表明,权力赋予了非同一般的优势:“高权力”的病人比同等地位的“低权力”的病人获得更多的资源和更好的结果。病人的晋升甚至增加了医生的努力。

此外,如果低权力的病人的医生同时照顾高权力的病人,他们就会感到痛苦。医患在种族和性别方面的一致性也很重要。总体而言,权力驱动的行为变异会伤害卫生保健机构中最脆弱的人群。

▲ Abstract:

Power—the asymmetric control of valued resources—affects most human interactions. Although power is challenging to study with real-world data, a distinctive dataset allowed us to do so within the critical context of doctor-patient relationships. Using 1.5 million quasi-random assignments in US military emergency departments, we examined how power differentials between doctor and patient (measured by using differences in military ranks) affect physician behavior. Our findings indicate that power confers nontrivial advantages: “High-power” patients (who outrank their physician) receive more resources and have better outcomes than equivalently ranked “low-power” patients. Patient promotions even increase physician effort. Furthermore, low-power patients suffer if their physician concurrently cares for a high-power patient. Doctor-patient concordance on race and sex also matters. Overall, power-driven variation in behavior can harm the most vulnerable populations in health care settings.

 
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