德国马普学会脑研究所Erin M. Schuman团队在研究中取得进展。他们的最新工作表明，单核糖体在神经元突起中偏好翻译突触mRNA。2020年1月31日出版的《科学》发表了这项成果。
Title: Monosomes actively translate synaptic mRNAs in neuronal processes
Author: Anne Biever, Caspar Glock, Georgi Tushev, Elena Ciirdaeva, Tamas Dalmay, Julian D. Langer, Erin M. Schuman
Abstract: To accommodate their complex morphology, neurons localize messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and ribosomes near synapses to produce proteins locally. However, a relative paucity of polysomes (considered the active sites of translation) detected in electron micrographs of neuronal processes has suggested a limited capacity for local protein synthesis. In this study, we used polysome profiling together with ribosome footprinting of microdissected rodent synaptic regions to reveal a surprisingly high number of dendritic and/or axonal transcripts preferentially associated with monosomes (single ribosomes). Furthermore, the neuronal monosomes were in the process of active protein synthesis. Most mRNAs showed a similar translational status in the cell bodies and neurites, but some transcripts exhibited differential ribosome occupancy in the compartments. Monosome-preferring transcripts often encoded high-abundance synaptic proteins. Thus, monosome translation contributes to the local neuronal proteome.