作者:Z. L. Steel, B. Campos et.al 来源:Scientific Reports 发布时间:2019/12/19 9:25:36
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野火或对森林蝙蝠有益 |《科学报告》

论文标题:The effects of wildfire severity and pyrodiversity on bat occupancy and diversity in fire-suppressed forests

期刊:Scientific Reports

作者:Z. L. Steel, B. Campos et.al

发表时间:2019/12/05

数字识别码:10.1038/s41598-019-52875-2

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《科学报告》发表的一项研究The effects of wildfire severity and pyrodiversity on bat occupancy and diversity in fire-suppressed forests显示,蝙蝠对内华达山脉的野火具有不尽相同但较为积极的响应。研究结果或有助于提升火灾频繁林区的蝙蝠保育和管理策略。

一只正在飞行中捕食蛾子的尤马鼠耳蝠

图片来源:Michael Durham,Minden Pictures, Bat Conservation International

野火是一种会影响生物多样性和生境质量的关键生态过程。就蝙蝠而言,火灾会影响它们的觅食和栖息,可能是决定生境质量的一个重要因素,由火灾导致的生境异质性也常被称为“火场多样性”。然而,对森林景观中的蝙蝠分布以及多样性的研究一直不够充分,为火灾频繁的生态系统的蝙蝠保育和管理工作带来了挑战。

为了研究内华达森林野火严重程度和火场多样性对蝙蝠群落的影响,美国加州大学戴维斯分校的Zachary Steel和同事监测了2014-2017年间的蝙蝠种群。作者发现,在该区域常见的17种蝙蝠中,6种蝙蝠的占有率随火烧严重度的增加而增加,包括大棕蝠、长耳鼠耳蝠和墨西哥无尾蝙蝠,只有小足蝠的占有率降低了。在火场多样性更大的区域,有3个物种的占有率有所增加。研究人员探测到的不同物种总数(物种丰富度)从未过火林地的8种增加至火烧严重度中高区域的11种。

研究结果显示,程度中等、火烧严重度多样的野火对蝙蝠最为有益。作者认为蝙蝠可能对日益频发的野火具有一定的抵抗力,且该趋势预计会随气候变化而持续。

摘要:Wildfire is an important ecological process that influences species’ occurrence and biodiversity generally. Its effect on bats is understudied, creating challenges for habitat management and species conservation as threats to the taxa worsen globally and within fire-prone ecosystems. We conducted acoustic surveys of wildfire areas during 2014–2017 in conifer forests of California’s Sierra Nevada Mountains. We tested effects of burn severity and its variation, or pyrodiversity, on occupancy and diversity for the 17-species bat community while accounting for imperfect detection. Occupancy rates increased with severity for at least 6 species and with pyrodiversity for at least 3. Two other species responded negatively to pyrodiversity. Individual species models predicted maximum occupancy rates across burn severity levels but only one species occurred most often in undisturbed areas. Species richness increased from approximately 8 species in unburned forests to 11 in pyrodiverse areas with moderate- to high-severity. Greater accessibility of foraging habitats, as well as increased habitat heterogeneity may explain positive responses to wildfire. Many bat species appear well adapted to wildfire, while a century of fire suppression and forest densification likely reduced habitat quality for the community generally. Relative to other taxa, bats may be somewhat resilient to increases in fire severity and size; trends which are expected to continue with accelerating climate change.

(来源:科学网)

 
 
 
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